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Like many discoveries, Novosel’s insights into tempo occurred serendipitously. While editing video of LPGA star Jan Stephenson’s swing for an infomercial, he happened to pay attention to the frame counter on his editing program. Broadcast video is shot at a rate of thirty frames per second (or roughly thirty-three thousandths of a second per frame), and Novosel noticed that Stephenson’s tempo was exactly the same from swing to swing, no matter what club she was using: twenty-seven frames from take-away to the top, nine frames from the top back down to impact, for a total of thirty-six frames, or 1.2 seconds. Curious, he started examining the videotaped swings of other top pros. The fastest swingers, like Nick Price, Ben Hogan and Jack Nicklaus, took twenty-one frames to reach the top of their backswings and seven frames back to impact, for twenty-eight frames total and .93 seconds total swing time. Another group, including Tiger Woods, Ernie Els and Sam Snead, took twenty-four frames back and eight frames down, for 1.02 seconds total swing time. And a third group, including Bobby Jones, David Toms and Jim Furyk, swung consistently at a 27:9 tempo. Of the more than one hundred pros whose swings Novosel studied, only one—Ed Furgol, the 1954 U.S. Open champion—swung faster than 21:7 (he swung at 18:6), and only a handful swung slower, including Nancy Lopez in her prime (30:10). But always, the three-to-one time ratio of backswing to downswing was identical.